Saturday, August 24, 2019
A SCENARIO BASED - Essay Example The clincials point out a sense of attitude from the student, their personality, bedside manner and their work ethic. This also gives the student a chance to see whether they like working with patients in certain settings. There are basically three issues in this scenario and two of them are related. The first two issues show that the student is showing up late for their placement and they have missed several times during the four weeks that they have been involved. They are also late coming back from breaks during the day. The other issue is that the student is not really talking about what is going on when they are confronted and therefore are in danger of failing. Although these are the issues presented in the scenario, there is another issue that is important to consider: This placement may not be a fit for this particular student, which could be the reason for their attitude and behaviour. The most obvious issue for the mentor in this situation is what to do about it. The student may fail this aspect of training unless she starts to take responsibility for her behaviour and changes it. The mentor must make a decision about the type of intervention that is needed or whether it is time to fail the student. According to Cleland et al. (2008), there are many factors that influence whether an individual who is underperforming should be failed. One of the challenges with failing a student is that mentors have difficulty doing this if they feel they are stopping a students career. Also, failing a student may depend on what the mentor felt about the student overall. Taking the facts into consideration suggest that the mentor will have to fail this student because they are halfway through the placement and the behaviour has not changed. Their attitude seems to show that they are not interested in the placement. At this point, an assessment of the attitudes, personality and skills would be helpful for the student.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Lifestyle - Essay Example The Spanish way of life is to work hard and party harder which is living it up as we would call it. This reflects in the people of Spain who as studies have shown are a happy crowd, where the people are content without having to extend their daily life to fit in more than is necessary. The weather can be one of the reasons for this laid back lifestyle that has become a part of their culture. It becomes quite difficult to work in the sweltering heat which is why life usually starts after the sun goes down in summer. Everything about Spain would spell holiday for someone who is not used to the culture. The music, dance and food are vibrant and can keep you on a high for as long as you are on a holiday. It could be contagious and make people wish for more. The country itself has an endearing history and background which entices people to leave their homes for this lifetime entertainment. Of course for a person who is from a hi-tech city and one who lives to work would be taken by surprise by the Spanish lifestyle. The amazing family ties which are quite enviable are one of the advantages of the Spanish culture. Children are brought up in a well knit family and are usually the focal point of attention. This is what is lacking in the outside world today where the parents do not have the time to devote to their children. Whereas in Spain time spent with the family is considered of utmost importance and then comes work and pleasure. Invariable the lifestyle becomes healthier and contended. SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and society helps you build stronger communal ties and excellent social skills. You cannot help but become friendly in nature unless you want to be the sore thumb in the society where the people are open minded fun loving and friendly and chatting up with someone on the way is a casual occurrence. You have the chance to develop other talents that you
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Supernatural Drama Media Essay Essay Explore how far the Vampire Diaries/Being Human/Misfits DVD cover conforms to genre conventionsIn this essay, I will be analysing the DVD cover of the Vampire Diaries which is a television programme in the teen-supernatural hybrid drama genre. I will also be analysing the covers of Being Human and Misfits and I will compare and contrast them with the Vampire Diaries cover. The typical genre conventions of supernatural dramas are that there are supernatural beings such as ghosts. Werewolves and vampires, and ordinary setting, a trigger/event that leads to the creation of supernatural beings. Ordinary people becoming supernatural or finding out about supernatural beings, and the running theme which is good vs bad. On the front of the Vampire Diaries cover, the title is written in bold white writing. The red ribbon wrapped around the white writing could connote the red strangling the white, or rather the bad strangling the good. There is also a drop of blood that can be seen under the V. Blood is conventional of the vampire story. There is a girl in a red dress which could connote lust, blood, love and danger and she is lying in the middle of two men which could connote a love triangle. The bodies look lifeless but they are looking directly at the camera which could connote that they are the living dead. This contrasts to the drooping tree which looks like it has been drained of life which links to blood being drained. The logo on the Misfits cover is separated, and is tinged pink. The Being Human title is written in a plain, simple font. The Misfits title is the only one that uses an unconventional colour scheme. The Vampire Diaries follows the life of Elena Gilbert (Nina Dobrev) who falls for a century old vampire Stefan Salvatore (Paul Wesley). Their lives grow more complicated as Stefans vicious brother Damon (Ian Somerhalder) returns to town with a vendetta against his brother. The series is set in the fictional town of Mystic Falls, Virginia, a town charged with supernatural history. This cover is the only one that uses conventional colours and gothic themes and the other covers, especially Misfits subvert the genre conventions. The narrative of the Vampire Diaries is very conventional of a supernatural and a teen drama. The elements are there, especially when a love triangle is introduced into the plot. Misfits is a British science-fiction drama television series based on a group of young offenders who obtain supernatural powers after a strange electric storm. The plots of Misfits and Being HumanÃ follow a majority of the genre conventions, but some parts of the narrative completely subvert them. For instance, there is a lightning storm that leads the characters gaining supernatural powers, but they are a group of young offenders and they wouldnt usually be the kind of people to gain powers. On the back cover, there are profile images of each character which are comic-book like, which links with the idea of superheroes which is iconic, but the characters subvert the conventions of superheroes. There is a different colour behind each character which again suggest they are a team of superheroes. In Being Human all three supernatural characters share a flat together in Bristol. The darkness surrounding the characters with some light suggest they are fighting against something evil that is almost taking them in. The messy house suggests chaos and along with the simple font and location suggest the simple they want is not possible. Both programmes would be very ordinary if there was no supernatural element to it. The Vampire Diaires appeals to teenagers, as the characters in it are attractive and are supposed to be around the ages of 17 and onwards. The drama part of the series also deals with some of the social problems and worries teenagers face today. Misfits subverts genre conventions and appeals to its target audience as it contains things like sex, drugs, mystery and action which are endearing to people in this age range and uses the kind of language they would also use which makes the characters seem more realistic. All three programmes have a website where views can interact with each other and can be more involved and learn and watch more about what happens behind the scenes of the shows. The Vampire Diaries is the programme that fully follows the conventions of supernatural drama. The running theme of good vs bad, the colours used and gothic themes. There are lots of different types of supernatural beings involved. The convention of a small historic town is also used. Misfits and Being Human also subvert some of the conventions of supernatural genre. They have ordinary settings but although the narrative revolves around supernatural beings the background of it is quite normal.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Impact Of Population Growth On The Environment Environmental Sciences Essay The world has been experiencing a rapid increase in human population for the past 10, 000 years. According to the most recent U.N. statistics, population has grown from several millions back in the B.C. to over 6.6 billion in the 21st century. Even though the growth rate is gradually slowing, the U.N. population Division still expect the worldwide population to very much hit 9.1 billion by 2050. We have all known for long that the human population is no doubt the chief contributor to environmental woes. The humans are the one demanding fossil fuels to power their tech-savvy lifestyles, clearing forests for agricultural use, and polluting the environment with their industrial activities. More people means more demand for natural resources either mined or drilled from below the Earths surface to be burned for energy. Assuming that each person contributes to a certain amount of the total demand, one could very much imagine the kind of strain that this 2.5 billion of additional population is going to cause to the Earth. With the population expected to rise by that phenomenal amount, environmentalist and the others are getting more concerned with whether the Earth is still able to withstand that loads of demand. We also being concerned aims to examine the causes and impacts of this issue in the report, so that solutions could be proposed to alleviate it. 1.3 Focus In our opinion, we feel that if we can solve the problem of the rising human population growth, we can also solve the environmental problems that is likely to stem from it. The explaination for this reasoning is simple and rather fundamental. The problems merely justify the need to do something about it, whereas the causes is the one that set off the problems. As mentioned earlier on, the crux to the solutions lies very much with the causes itself. Therefore, one could very well expect us to first introduce the problems in the report, before moving on to the more crucial part, its causes and solutions. 1.4 Methodology Information used for this study was mainly obtained from secondary sources such as books, online databases, U.N. publications, and other useful websites. A listing of these useful sources of information can be found at the Appendix 1 as attached in the report. Human population The world population refers to the total number of living humans on Earth at a given time. For the past 10, 000 years, the world has been experiencing a rapid increase in human population. According to the most recent U.N. statistics, population has grown from several millions back in the B.C. to over 6.6 billion in the 21st century. Even though the growth rate is gradually slowing, the U.N. Population Division still expect the worldwide population to very much hit 9.1 billion by 2050. With most of the increase in Asia and Africa, in particular, the poorer nations that have no access to proper family-planning programmes. An alarming issue Rising human population We have all known for long that the human population is no doubt the chief contributor to environmental woes. However, what little know of is that the human population is only one of the several factors that affect the environment. The extent to which population increase can be considered a problem is still reliant on other factors. One widely used formula that could help us understand what factors could actually interplayed to cause that significant impact, would be the IPAT model that John Holdren from Harvard University came up with. This model represents how the total impact on the enviroment results from the interaction among population, affluence and technoloy. An Increased population intensifies impact on the environment as more individuals take up space, use resources, and generate waste. As the population gets older it gets more affluent too, thereby demanding higher living standards to satisfy their wants. To meet the humans instatiable wants, better technology would have to be developed to better mine fossil fuels, clear old-growth forests, or fish. Assuming that everybody has to be fed, clothed, housed and hopefully supported by gainful employment. An increased population would actually means the intensification of the impact that the human population has on the Ecosystem. Hence, the problem is not only that the population is burgeoning. It is also that the usage of the resources, and environmental damages are also increasing at a phenomenol speed. Approach All of us would have known by now that a rising global population has devasting impacts on the Earth. It not only erodes the living standards of the world population, results in poverty in already poor countries, affect a countrys economy, but most importantly has a negative impact on the Ecosystem. We will in this chapter, look in depth how the rising global human population develops into a problem, and the various environmental impacts it has on the Earth. The Problem of Rising Global Human Population Urbanisation is being defined as the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. Moreover, It can also be interpreted as the movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. The United Nations project suggested that 60% of the worlds population would live in urban areas at the end of 2030. An increased in the population residing there would lead to an increase in consumption of energy, food, water, domestic goods, and land. To accommodate to this increase in demand, more resource extraction, manufacturing, and agricultural production will have to take place. Considering the limited existing resources of an urban city, an expansion of the city would be needed for the above mentioned activities to take place. This expansion of urban areas across the landscape is something also being defined as urban sprawl. In order for urban sprawl to take place, surrounding areas adjoining the edge of the urban cities will have to be made ready. This is usually done through habitat alteration such as, deforestation for urban cities surrounded by forest/mangroves, or land reclaimation for cities corteminous with islands. Environmental Impacts From the above illustration, we can see that a rising population will not only highten the rate of human activites but will also give rise to newer problems such as urban sprawl. All of these problems will then contribute to certain environmental woes which would interplay and lead to further consequences. The following are some environmental issues that are either the direct or indirect impact of a rising global population: Depletion of natural resources Global climate change Loss of biodiversity Depletion of natural resources Depletion of natural resources refers to the over exploitation of the exhaustible group of natural resources. This group of resources comes in the form of renewable and non-renewable resources. Renewable natural resources are those that can replenish themselves in a resonable amount of time, however, it can also be depleted should the rate of usage exceed the rate of regeneration. Whereas, non-renewable resources are those that only exist in a fixed quality, and either takes up to millions of year to replace themselves or does not possess the ability to recyle themselves. As the human population rises, human activities such as urban sprawl, resource extraction, manufacturing, and agricultural production are expected to increase too. As all of these activities each demand a certain type of natural resources and energy to support them, an increase in human activities would equate to an increase in demand for these natural resources. Some of the resources that are affected as a result of them are namely, fossil fuels, land, water, and minerals. Fossil Fuels Alongside the increasing demand for petrol and diesel to power transportation, industries and farming, huge quantities of fossil fuel such as crude oil is also needed in the manufacturing of plastic-made products. With oil production likely to increase by nearly 40% from 2006 to 2030; as a result of only the increasing world energy demand of 60%. The real demand for oil is believed to be much more higher. According to British Petroleum the current world oil reserves stand at 1238 billion barrels. And present yearly world oil production stands at 31 billion barrels.Ã If the current rate of oil discoverage were to remain stagnant or low, oil, the primary source of fossil fuel used to produce energy might very well be depleted before 40 years (The figure as calculated with current consumption rate and the level of reserves). The following is a graph (Figure 1.0) that highlighted the increasing gap between the production rate and discoverage rate of oil supplies. Figure 1.0 (adaptedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..) Land and Water Land degradation refers to deterioration or loss of fertility or productive capacity of the soil. Urban sprawl can dramatically transform the properties of soil, causing it to lose its water permeability and ability to perform essential duties. These duties include the loss of ability to sustain soil biodiversity, crop cultivation, and the reduced effectiveness as a carbon sink. The following graph (Figure 1.1) showed the amount and types of land loss in various European cities that were the result of urban sprawl. Figure 1.1 (adaptedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦) On top of all that, rainwater which falls on areas with deterioted land will also be heavily polluted by tire abrasion, dust and high concentrations of heavy metals, which when washed into rivers will degrade the hydrological system. To add insult to injury, the level of water table will also decline as deterioted land can no longer allow water to penetrate throught it. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,Ã If current trends continue, 90 percent of freshwater supplies will disappear by 2030. Setting all that aside, one still has to take into consideration the soaring increase in use of water for crop cultivation and human consumption. With the supply of water on the shorter end and demand for it on the rise, the UN Millenium Project, 2008a estimated that 3 billion people might face water scarcity by 2025. A remarkable increase from the current figure of 700 millions people. If nothing done about this, the Earth will very soon run out of arable land to support crop cultivation and no longer have enough safe drinking water to support the rising global human population. Minerals Minerals are the backbone of the human civilisation, they are needed in almost all sectors of industries. If we were to look into the manufacturing sector and bulding sector, some minerals used by them would be gold, silver, iron, cemet, and copper. Since there is a direct relationship between the human population and the industries, a booming population will also lead to an increase in the consumption of minerals. A good example to substantiate the direct impact a growing population would have on minerals would be the example on Spain. For years, the efforts to support the growing population in Spain, have resulted in major expansion of construction activities, mainly along the coast and around major cities. As a result, the consumption of concrete has also increased by a wide margin of 120 % since 1996, reaching a level of 51.5 million tons in 2005. Taking into account the non-renewable characteristic of minerals and the direct relationship it has with the human population. A surge in the human population might cause the limited stock of minerals to undergo depletion in the near future. Loss of biodiveristy Biodiversity may be defined as the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or the entire Earth. Biodiversity is earths primary life support system and is a pre-condition for human survival. As population grow, develop and modify their environment, their activities inevitably affect biodiversity. To understand the impacts of human population growth on biodiversity, a study into it had been carried out in Canada. The findings reveal that human activities such as agricultural activities, urbanisation, and manufacturing are the primary causes of the decline of biodiversity in Canada. Agricultural activities Agricultural is the production of goods and food through farming. It is reported that Agriculture has had a significant effect on biodiversity because of its prevalence over the landscape. Loss of native habitat in Canada due to farming has been significant. As a result of agricultural activities, Canada lost more than 85% of shortgrass prairie, 80% of mixed-grass prairie, 85% of aspen parkland and almost its entire native tallgrass prairie. Loss of habitat, coupled with farming practises of using only a few strains genetically-engineered crop, has resulted in the endangerment of a disproportionately large number of plants and animal species in Canada. To prepare a piece of land for agricultural activities, the natural vegetation has to be first removed from it. Without the natural vegetations protection, the topsoil, a surface layer of soil that is rich in nutrients and beneficial microorganisms, can be easily eroded away by surface water, or winds. In Quebec, it is estimated that 3.4 million tonnes of soil per year are eroded by water. Soil erosion renders an area barren and unsuitable for plants that were initially growing there. To add on to that, soil that has been washed away and deposited in waterways, also destroys the fragile life forms in it. If water can carry away soil, it can also cause the runoff of pesticides and fertilizers that are applied in abundance to commercial crops, and of course the wastes of cattle and livestock. In Quebec, between 1990 and 1991, an impressive amount of 190 000 tonnes of nitrogen and 120 000 tonnes of phosphorus were applied to agricultural lands in the form fertilizers, or were present as livestock wastes. As these excess nutrients enter the lakes and rivers, Eutrophication of aquatic environment can occur; altering and degrading the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems. With 64 out of 105 developing countries studied by the UN Food and Agriculture Ogranisation seeing their population growing at a speed faster than the food supplies, the increase in agricultural activities worldwide is imminent. Therefore, one should expect the loss of biodiversity as a result of pollutants coming from agricultural activities to swell around the globe. Urbanisation It is estimated that between 1871 and 1991, the Canadian population living in urban centers have increased from19% toÃ 77%. To accommodate to this increase, the initial urban centres that stand on 0.7% of Canadas total area, have been expanding over the last few decades. In the twenty years spanning 1971 to 1991, the total area of the Montreal Urban Community increased from 2674 km2 in 1971 to 3509 km2, the Quebec City area increased from 907 km2 to 3150 km2, and the Sherbrooke and Trois-Rivieres became classified as urban centers. With the majority of large cities located within the St. Lawrence lowlands, a ecozone that is very biologically rich. An expanding city is bound to displace the many species that depend on that ecozone as habitat. Manufacturing In Cananda, manufacturing is the main economy in Quebec, it not only employs the most number of people, but also contribute the highest proportion of Quebecs GDP. Due to the unique nature of this sector of industry, many harmful pollutants are constantly being emited from its operations. Water-borne pollutants include metals, organic chemicals, and suspended sediments that are usually found in industrial discharges. These toxic discharges when flow into the water, can inversely affect the biota in an ecosystem by killing them, weakening them, or deterioting their ability to reproduce. As mentioned earlier on, the majority of large cities are concentrated within the St. Lawrence watershed. Therefore, any harmful discharges from the industries can quickly reach and harm the living organisms in it. Air-borne pollutants include carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and acid precipiation that can usually be found in the smoke fumes from factories and motor vehicles. It had been found out that air emissions from the Inco steel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario were directly responsible for a significant portion of the acid rain in eastern North America. Consequently, the surrounding lakes, which is home to fish, mollusk and other amphibian populations, were acidified. Since these amphibian species will not be able to survive in acidic condition, a lake hit by acid rain will result in the death of them. Furthermore, air-borne pollutants such as carbon dioxide and methane also give rise to a whole new environmental problem, which is being known as Global Climate Change. We will in the following paragraphs look into what this is all about. Global Climate Changes Global climate change refers to the change in global temperatures and precipitation over time due to natural variability or to human activity. Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC), ever since the start of the industrial revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have rose from 280 parts per million to 379 parts per million in the last 150 years. Furthermore, findings also concluded that there is a higher than 90 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earths temperatures over the past 50 years. While we all know that human activities were the cause of global climate changes, the main causes of the current global warming trend is actually the result of human expansion of greenhouse effect a process in which the heat leaving the Earth is being trapped by the greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include, water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitirious oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. On Earth, the composition of natural greenhouse has been constantly altered by human activities. Over the years, the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. On a smaller scale, the clearing of forests for agriculture, industry, and other human activities, have also resulted in an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases. From the relationship between the human population and humans industrial activities, it is undisputed that any increase in the human population will lead to an increase of greenhouse emissions, which will eventually accelerates the rate of global climate change. The following table summarises the regional impacts of global climate change by the IPPC: Region Impacts North America Decreasing snowpack in the western mountains; 5-20 percent increase in yields of rain-fed agriculture in some regions; increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in cities that currently experience them. Latin America Gradual replacement of tropical forest by savannah in eastern Amazonia; risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction in many tropical areas; significant changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation. Europe Increased risk of inland flash floods; more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion from storms and sea level rise; glacial retreat in mountainous areas; reduced snow cover and winter tourism; extensive species losses; reductions of crop productivity in southern Europe. Africa By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress; yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 percent in some regions by 2020; agricultural production, including access to food, may be severely compromised. Asia Freshwater availability projected to decrease in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia by the 2050s; coastal areas will be at risk due to increased flooding; death rate from disease associated with floods and droughts expected to rise in some regions. Figure 1.2 (Adapted from: http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/) On top of all that, the global climate change also indirectly resulted in the loss of biodiversity. As the global temperature rises, crop that used to grow best at certain temperature, will not be able to adapt, and will die off eventually. On the other hand, the higher temperature will also melt the glaciers and the artic sea ice, a habitat to animals such as, polar bears and penguins. Conclusion According to U.N. population division, the worldwide population has a high likelihood of hitting 9.1 billion by 2050. From this figure, it is easy to see that even if the current world population of 6.6 billion does not increase it consumtion per capita, we will still have to use up more resources to support this higher number of population. Hence, there is an urgent need to do something about the rising global huamn population, as the devasting envrionmental effects we discussed earlier on have a direct relationship with it.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Conflict Theory in Sociology Social class is often defined as the amount of education, income, and status people have. As we know, getting an education is one of the most effective approaches for ensuring employment and an increase in income, which adds up to higher status or social class. Many people often do not have the income in order to pursue higher education. This gives them the title or identification of being one of the lower class groups in our society. If this remains to be the situation, then there is little hope for those people that are living below the poverty line. I believe that evaluation research would be the best method, because it evaluates the both publicly and privately government and nonprofit programs. Sociologists use all of the collecting methods like surveys, secondary analysis and content analysis, and surveys. It is used to help the programs that are in need which can include: work-training programs and housing programs and all sorts of other programs. The advantages of evaluation research are dealing with the social programs that are going on with society. It shows how the programs are doing compared against other programs and how they are improving in a certain amount of time and with what help from the government. The disadvantages of evaluation research would be that it is very frustrating to find out that one program is in need of help and they are steady helping other programs that are not in need. They are also finding out that mistakes are being made and nothing is being done about them. Agents of socialization are believed to provide the critical information needed for children to function successfully as a member of society. Some examples of such agents are family, schools, peers, and the media. Each agent of socialization is linked to another. For example, in the media, symbolic images affect both the individual and the society, making the mass media the most controversial socialization agent. Family is a fundamental social institution in society, the family, is considered the primary and most important agent of socialization. With the family taking the responsibility of nurturing, teaching the norms or accepted behaviors within the family structure and within society. There are many types of families, which can be described as a set of relationships including parents and children and can include anyone related by blood or adoption. Family is the most important, for it is within the family that the child is first socialized to serve the needs of the society and no t only its own needs. Socialization is learning the customs, attitudes, and values of a social group, community, or culture. Socialization is essential for the development of individuals who can participate and function within their societies, as well as for ensuring that a societys cultural features will be carried on through new generations. Socialization is most strongly enforced by family, school, and peer groups and continues throughout an individuals lifetime. The purpose of these experiments was to see if individual would be swayed by public pressure to go along with the incorrect answer. Asch believed that conformity reflects on relatively rational process in which people are pressurized to change peoples behavior. Asch designed to measure the pressure of a group situation upon an individual judgment. Asch wanted to proof that conformity can really play a big role in disbelieving our own senses. Milgrams experiment was done to determine whether or not the power of the situation could cause average people to conform to obedience. The results of Milgrams experiment were astounding. The research of Milgrams experiment had such a major impact on social psychology that we still use his findings to analyze human behavior today. Zimbardo conducted a controversial study known as the Stanford prison experiment. The experiment was a psychological study of human reactions to being imprisoned and how the effects would interfere with the normal behav iors of both authorities and the inmates in prison. Zimbardo and his team hypothesized that prison guards and convicts were self-selecting of a certain disposition that would naturally lead to poor conditions. In his explanation of groupthink, Janis describes three different types of group members: dominant members who introduce and implement their ideas upon others; consensus followers who listen and concede to others ideas; and independent thinkers who question the ideas presented and possibly introduce ideas of their own. Whether members of the group are dominant members, consensus followers, or independent thinkers who deviate from the norm, one thing is sure; impression management is a key strategy in group participation. Society today has primarily become McDonaldized in its way of thinking and doing everyday activities. It is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. McDonaldization is a way of life. It affects not only the food industry, but also healthcare, education, the workplace and almost everything else we do. The reason for this is because society is becoming fast pace and there is a need for efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. Since society is fast paced, there is no time for traditional ways of doing things. People are stuck on this new way of thinking, McDonaldization. In the fast-food industry, people benefit in all areas. With the availability of fast food chains around the world people can do less work, use spare time efficiently, get more for less and know what exactly to expect when they sit down to eat something. The conflict theory perspective is a framework for a building theory that sees society as an area of inequality generating conflict and social change. This focuses on the inequalities within our society and the conflict that they cause between the advantaged and the disadvantaged. The unequal distribution of money, gender, class, and age shows inequality. People who embrace the conflict perspective believe that gender, race, and class should not be lead to have favored treatment. Many of these people do not have marketable job skills and few means to attain them due to their lack of finances. Social class is often defined as the amount of education, income, and status people have. As we know, getting an education is one of the most effective approaches for ensuring employment and an increase in income, which adds up to higher status or social class. Many people often do not have the income in order to pursue higher education. This gives them the title or identification of being one o f the lower class groups in our society. If this remains to be the situation, then there is little hope for those people that are living below the poverty line. The inequalities and conflict of social class is leading towards a social change. The federal and state governments have implemented different types of financial assistance for people that are living below the poverty line. The government has made it easier for these individuals to apply for student loans so that they may pursue higher education and job skills. Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of all times. It has caused countless deaths and several violent confrontations between the two separate parties of opinion. The fight between pro-life and pro-choice supporters has been long and brutal. This is because, despite what several people may believe, abortion is neither right nor wrong. It is the matter of a personal opinion, where, each side can say with certainty that the other one is wrong. The controversial debate over whether same sex marriage should be legalized has gained a lot of attention in recent years and there are strong arguments for each side of the issue. There are many different factors that must be looked at when considering same-sex marriage. A marriage is not something that is just slapped on a piece of paper to show a couples love; it involves legal, social, economic, and spiritual issues. This idea of homosexuality is so frowned upon that no one even cares about the homosexuals reasons for being the way they are. No one bothers to ask if they chose to be that way. Some people think that being a homosexual is a crime. People just cannot seem to grasp the fact that these men and women who are homosexual did not chose to be this way Urbanization refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization. When more and more inanimate sources of energy were used to enhance human productivity (industrialization), surpluses increased in both agriculture and industry. Larger and larger proportions of a population could live in cities. Economic forces were such that cities became the ideal places to locate factories and their workers. Urbanization has a tremendous impact on the environment and the links between the two are severely complex. A majority of the carbon emissions are released in urban cities and the clearing of land and forests and for building, developing and expansion of cities remains one of the major contributors in the augmentation of carbon levels in the environment. Additionally, transportation in urban areas, for people as well as goods and services contributes substantia lly to the rise in carbon dioxide in the air.
Monday, August 19, 2019
With the growing number of people supporting the legalization of marijuana is it time to pass laws and make recreational use legal, or do all faults outweigh the good? The debate on whether marijuana should be legalized is currently a controversial topic. Many people have expressed their views on the topic, supporting their reasons for whether they think marijuana should be legalized. For some states it was easier to decide if the pros of legalizing marijuana outweighed the cons; such as Colorado and Washington. These states have already legalized the recreational use of marijuana. Marijuana is a fast-growing bushy plant with dense sticky flowers. It has been a part of our American culture for hundreds of years. It has been referred to as a poison, drug and narcotic. It is believed that marijuana was introduced by the Spanish in 1545 to Chile. In America the plant was first grown in Virginia and Massachusetts in the sixteen hundreds. It became a major commercial crop that was grown along with tobacco and was a source of fiber for fabric, rope and cloth. Later it was used to treat many health problems. During the 19th century many medical articles were written discussing marijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s value in treating conditions. The plant was considered legal from the 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s until the 19th century. Marijuana became popular in the mid-19th century and was in most drugstores through the beginning of the 20th century. It was around this time that recreational use of marijuana was becoming acknowledged. Marijuana has been illegal in the United States since t he Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. This is a federal law that made the possession or transfer of marijuana illegal throughout the United States. This law was the precursor to the crimina... ...ression, motivational syndrome, and even death. The brain damage has been shown to cause memory loss and difficulty in problem solving. In males, it will lower testosterone levels, lower sperm count, and may cause impotence. In females, marijuana may have some effects on pregnancy and can also cause birth defects. Legalization of marijuana could eventually lead to the legalization of harder drugs. Slowly progressing till it becomes possible for harder drugs to gain acceptance. Drugs like heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, which many view now as unacceptable could eventually be up for legalization. Both sides give legitimate reasons whether it was for or against the legalization and should be taken into consideration. In the end when all sides of the argument are considered, it is simply a matter of opinion on whether you think marijuana should be legalized.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Comets What is Cometography? Cometography is a four-volume project I have been working on since the mid-1970s. Jump-started by comet Kohoutek of 1973-1974, I began researching comets and immediately found myself becoming more and more intrigued by them. It was fascinating to read about comets that unexpectedly split, brightened, or faded. There were also interesting stories concerning the discovery circumstances of some comets, as well as tales about how comets affected cultures. As I continued reading I found that, back in 1967, the International Astronomical Union suggested that an up-to-date descriptive catalog of comets or "cometography" was needed. A committee was formed, but in 1970 it reported, according to the words of Brian Marsden, "that it would be very nice to have a cometography, but that the effort required to produce such a catalog was greater than the members of the committee could devote to it." Thus began my inspiration to research and write Cometography, a set of books devoted to adequately presenting the details of every comet seen in recorded history. The last complete work of this type was written by Alexander Guy Pingre. His two volumes, called Cometographie, were published in 1783 and 1784, but are now greatly out of date. Not only do they obviously lack the comets seen between 1784 and the present, but much of the original source material has been retranslated over the years, so that Pingre's work is now inaccurate in places. Since the time of Pingre, two other books have been published: Physical Characteristics of Comets, by S. K. Vsekhsvyatskii in 1958, and Comets: A Descriptive Catalog, by myself in 1984. Both of these books brought the 19th and 20th century comets to readers, but in a manner much more highly condensed than that of Pingre. They also only included those comets for which orbits had been computed. The vast portion of Pingre's work included comets for which orbits could not be determined, some of which have since been identified as previous, though poorly observed, appearances of Halley's comet, periodic c omet Swift-Tuttle, and periodic comet d'Arrest. Cometography brings back the lesser observed comets, with the intention of providing all necessary details that might help future astronomers establish new comet identity links. To aid in the accuracy of Cometography I have tried to avoid Pingre's books and the book of Vsekhsvyatskii. Comets :: Essays Papers Comets What is Cometography? Cometography is a four-volume project I have been working on since the mid-1970s. Jump-started by comet Kohoutek of 1973-1974, I began researching comets and immediately found myself becoming more and more intrigued by them. It was fascinating to read about comets that unexpectedly split, brightened, or faded. There were also interesting stories concerning the discovery circumstances of some comets, as well as tales about how comets affected cultures. As I continued reading I found that, back in 1967, the International Astronomical Union suggested that an up-to-date descriptive catalog of comets or "cometography" was needed. A committee was formed, but in 1970 it reported, according to the words of Brian Marsden, "that it would be very nice to have a cometography, but that the effort required to produce such a catalog was greater than the members of the committee could devote to it." Thus began my inspiration to research and write Cometography, a set of books devoted to adequately presenting the details of every comet seen in recorded history. The last complete work of this type was written by Alexander Guy Pingre. His two volumes, called Cometographie, were published in 1783 and 1784, but are now greatly out of date. Not only do they obviously lack the comets seen between 1784 and the present, but much of the original source material has been retranslated over the years, so that Pingre's work is now inaccurate in places. Since the time of Pingre, two other books have been published: Physical Characteristics of Comets, by S. K. Vsekhsvyatskii in 1958, and Comets: A Descriptive Catalog, by myself in 1984. Both of these books brought the 19th and 20th century comets to readers, but in a manner much more highly condensed than that of Pingre. They also only included those comets for which orbits had been computed. The vast portion of Pingre's work included comets for which orbits could not be determined, some of which have since been identified as previous, though poorly observed, appearances of Halley's comet, periodic c omet Swift-Tuttle, and periodic comet d'Arrest. Cometography brings back the lesser observed comets, with the intention of providing all necessary details that might help future astronomers establish new comet identity links. To aid in the accuracy of Cometography I have tried to avoid Pingre's books and the book of Vsekhsvyatskii.